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PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS’ PERCEPTION ON THE USE OF ONLINE LEARNING AT ENGLISH EDUCATION bab 1


Chapter One
Introduction
This chapter presents the problems and reasons of conducting the study. In this chapter arranged as follows: background of the study, Identification and limitation of the problem, formulation of the study, purpose of the study, the significant of the study and outline of the study. 

Background of the Study
Recently, technology has touched almost all aspects in our life including the educational aspects. As a place where all of knowledge is obtained, education is the front line making the world better with its invention in technology. Technology is designed for changing traditional instructional models by allowing students to more actively participate in their learning during the school and out of school. The use of technology in classroom is becoming increasingly essential and it becomes the normal part in the learning process in the coming years. It is proved by Dudeney and
Hockly (2007, p. 7), that “for students, the use of technology is a way to bring the outside world into the classroom and some of these students will in turn become teachers themselves”. Technology in education has function as a new way for practicing and assessing performance and it can be used in a classroom and outside of classroom. Besides, as a stated by Dudeney and Hockly (2007, p. 8), “Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools can give students exposure to and practice in all of the four main language skills – speaking, listening, writing and reading”.
Nowadays, everything revolves into electronic and digital. Here are some examples of the digitalized tools such as the use of book has transformed to be ebook. Another example is the use of cassette has been replaced to be CDs or MP3s. Moreover, education in the present era also has moved out of vicinity of classroom and printed material. Some educational instructions or universities have started to upload course materials in online or digital that student does not need to wait for printed books.
The increasing technology and digitalized era has become more widespread with the use of internet access. Internet provides opportunity to explore and apply knowledge and to access intercultural and personalized knowledge for learning (Khaimak & Horzum, 2013). One of learning application which more widely used with the opportunities provided by internet is online learning. One way to encourage students to more actively participate in learning during the school and out of school is through online learning. “Online learning - defined as program or course in which students receive some or all of their education over a networked system such as internet” (Burdette, Greer, & Woods, p. 65). The use of online learning has been globalizing in some universities. This evidence is verified by Allen and Seaman
(2008) as cited in Allen, Wright, and Innes, (2014, p. 2).  They stated that “in the
USA, approximately 33% of all students enrolled in at least one online course in
2007, representing a 12% increase from 2006”. The present education is different from the previous decade, since education in the present era is not merely only conducted by face to face learning, but it is also more widely equipped with the additional used of online learning. The additional online learning has been implemented in the instruction, assessment and submission. If in the previous decades, teacher gives assessment or submission through only face to face learning, nowadays, the instruction, assessment and submission can be done via online. 
The success of the implementation technology depends on several factors. We cannot deny that the implementation of technology is not only appeared because of lack of facilities, but it is also dealing with the human resource. The teachers are expected to make use of technology in their teaching, even though the adoption of technology is a major challenge to teacher. If the human resources are technologically illiterate, or if the teachers are not creative in using technology and they are unaware with the importance of the implementation of technology, then the students will be very disadvantaged.
Another problem that might hamper optimum teaching and learning process is when there is no facilities to support the implementation of technology no facilities to support the implementation of technology. Regarding with this problem, Park and Ertmer (2008) stated teachers do not understand how technology can be integrated in teaching and learning process. Besides of problem with the teacher, school system also does not fully to support the implementation of technology.
This study attempts to investigate the pre-service teachers’ perception on the use of online learning at EED of UMY. This study emphases on the pre-service teachers’ perception on the kinds of interaction in online learning context, the activities in online learning context, the use of online learning toward their language skills, pre-service teachers’ preferences in online learning, and their perception on the strengths and weaknesses of online learning. The participants of this study are preservice teachers of English Education Department of Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta. They are the pre-service teachers of batch 2011 who have been joined online learning in some courses. 

Identification of the Problem
The challenge of the implementation of technology in education also happens in case of the implementation of online learning especially at EED of UMY. Based on researcher personal experience, the implementation of online learning has not got an equal portion comparing with the face to face learning. It happens since online learning in this department is only for additional learning. However, the use of online learning has been globalizing in some universities and there are still many pre-service teachers who are still unfamiliar with the use of online learning. The researcher found some difficulties with the use of online learning including unfamiliarity with some tools and directions in online learning, feeling overwhelms in joining in online learning, and lack of facilities that support the implementation of online learning at EED. It is caused by the portion of implementation online learning at EED of UMY is still low and there is no clear rules and regulations to conduct online learning in teaching process. The researcher aims to investigate the perception of pre-service teachers on the implementation of online learning at English Education Department. 

Formulation of the Problem
The research question being investigated in this study is “What is the preservice teachers’ perception on the use of online learning at English Education
Department of Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta? “

Purpose of Study
This research is intended to find out: 
1.      Pre-service teachers’ perception on the kinds of interaction in online learning context.
2.      Pre-service teachers’ perception on the activities in online learning context.
3.      Pre-service teachers’ perception on the use of online learning toward their language skills.
4.      Pre-service teachers’ preferences in online learning.
5.      Pre-service teachers’ perception on the strengths and weaknesses of online learning.

The Significance of the Study
This study is hoped to benefit the researcher, pre-service teachers, teachers, institution and other researchers. 
The researcher. This study benefits the researcher herself. Firstly, it can broaden her insight in terms of the use online learning in language learning. Secondly, this study gives motivation to the researcher to implement online learning in her learning and teaching process later. Lastly, it is expected to build the researcher self-awareness about the use of online learning. By having self-awareness, it can enhance her sense of responsibility to participate and implement online learning. 
Pre-service Teachers. This study is expected to benefit pre-service teachers as follows. Firstly, this study might broaden insight of pre-service teachers in terms of online learning. Secondly, it also gives advantage for pre-service teachers as the teacher candidate in the future to enhance the understanding and knowledge to implement online learning in the future. Lastly, it is demanded that pre-service teacher becomes aware with the use of online learning so that they can implement it in their classroom.  
Teachers. This study is expected to foster teacher’s creativity to design classroom with the collaboration of technology especially online learning. Then, it also gives benefit for teacher to be aware to enhance their technological skills with the use of online learning. It is because technology has been grow rapidly, thus it becomes high demand for teacher to master it. 
            Institution. This study is expected to motivate institution to provide facilities to support the implementation of online learning. Besides, it might encourage teachers or lectures to design their class with the collaboration of technology such as online learning. Lastly, the result of this study might be used as evaluation for the institution to enhance technological skill of teachers to design their teaching with the use of online learning by conducting training or workshop.
            Other Researchers. The result of this study might be used for other researchers who are interested to conduct the same area of this study. Firstly, the findings of this study can be used as a reference to conduct further different research design or methodology. Secondly, it becomes base for other researchers to conduct experiment in same area of study related to the online learning. Thirdly, this study might become a source of theoretical study for the other researchers who conduct the similar study.

Outline of the Study
The structure of the study is organized as follows. Chapter one consists of background of the study, Identification and limitation of the problem, formulation of the study, purpose of the study, the significant of the study and outline of the study. Chapter two reviews some academic literature of the research. This chapter is divided into three parts including: the theories are related to this study, conceptual framework, and the previous studies. Furthermore, there are seven subtopics to be reviewed, as follows: definition of online learning, the significance of online learning, types of online learning, tools in online learning, the implementation of online learning in teaching, the use of activities in online learning interaction, the use of online learning language skill, and the strength and weakness of online learning. Chapter three highlights the research methods which concern on the design of the study, research setting, research participants, and instrument of the study, data collection procedure, and data analysis. Chapter four reports the finding and discussion. Firstly, the finding reported the pre-service teachers’ perception on the implementation of online learning at EED of UMY. Secondly, another finding is about the pre-service teachers’ perception on the interactions in online learning context. The next finding is about the pre-service teachers’ perception the use of online learning on their language skills. Fourthly, the finding revealed is about the pre-service teachers’ preferences in online learning. The last finding is about their perception on the strengths and weaknesses of online learning based on the interview data. Then, the last chapter presents conclusion and recommendation of this study. This chapter summarizes the research findings and proposes some recommendations emerged from the findings. The researcher proposed some recommendation for the teacher, the institution, and for future researcher.

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